Homeopathy was born in 1796, from experimental studies carried out by the german Dr. C. F. Samuel Hahnemann.
Speaking of Homeopathy today, that is, the branch of medicine which treats “like with like” (in ancient Greek, the word omeòs means “like”), there seems to be a kind of resonance with commonly used treatment methods. We immediately think about anti-viral or anti-allergy vaccines. However, the use of vaccines is based on the “principle of identity”, in other words the cure is prepared using substances or materials which are the same as those which can cause the illness (aequalia aequalibus), thus establishing a direct relationship between the pathogenic agent and the therapeutic agent.
In Homeopathy, this principle of identity gives way to the principle called the “criterion of similarity”. The treatment of like with like is an ancient principle existing in the history of medicine right from its beginnings. However, in homeopathic medicine, the principle of similarity becomes the theoretical nucleus of the entire treatment concept. Initially derived from empirical evidence, the principle of similarity is now based on some experimental evidence and, although some of its aspects have still to be investigated, the principle of similarity seems to be a possible key to reading the complexity of biological phenomena. Let’s start with the traditional concept, expressed in Hahnemann’s own words (Organon of Medicine) so that we can understand better the idea of homeopathic similarity:
“One imitates nature which sometimes heals one chronic disturbance by adding another and uses for the illness that remedy which is able to provoke another artificial illness as similar as possible to the one which it wants to cureand which it is able to cure: similia similibus” (Hahnemann, 1842).
“Choosing a remedy for a specific natural illness which is able to produce a very similar artificial illness, we can cure the more obstinate illness” (ibid.). “Every single case of illness is much more surely, radically, rapidly and definitively conquered and cured when the medicine (which treats it) can produce in a healthy organism in the most complete and similar way the totality of its symptoms, which at the same time are stronger than the illness” (ibid.).

To sum up, we can condense the classic formula of homeopathic similarity into three points:
• Every biologically active substance, whether it is a medicine or a toxin, a mineral or a plant extract, or even a bacterial product, produces some specific characteristic symptoms in the body of a person who takes it;
• Every sick person presents symptoms which are peculiar to the particular changes which have affected them (and it is on these symptoms that we base the diagnosis of a pathology), but also and more importantly, symptoms which are linked to the person’s own individual reactivity and biological constitution and which are therefore personal symptoms;
• The recovery of a sick person may be induced or encouraged by administering a specific substance in the correct dilution (or with a highmolecular dispersion of the active component). This substance can produce in a healthy person the same symptoms present in the pathology.

From an analysis of these three points, it is clear that the homeopathic Principle of Similarity is founded on a similarity of symptoms which are mainly subjectives and therefore not acceptable to conventional medicine, which generally tries to take account of objective data.
In short, the choice of a medicine made on the basis of individual symptoms (even if they are specific) would seem to be contradictory to
the guidelines dictated by modern scientific medicine, which looks for biochemical and molecular confirmation. In reality this contradiction
is more apparent than real. We can in fact, regard every symptom as the clinical expression of a series of underlying physiopathological and biochemical changes. Craving, or the overwhelming yearning for sweet foods, especially in the evening, may depend on a reduction in serotonin levels. The desire for liquid, or thirst, can be interpreted as a hypothalamic-pituitary response to liquid depletion (profuse sweating, diarrhea, blood loss etc.). A high temperature is well known to be a response by the heat regulation centers in the hypothalamus to the release, activated by inflammation, of cytokines by specific cells.
So, if we analyze the problem from this perspective, homeopathic medical practice differs from the conventional mainly in the integration of all the information gathered from its own diagnostic procedures: the use of symptoms and signs on the basis of the procedure codified by Hahnemann could even offer different (but not conflicting) levels of comprehension of the pharmacological properties of biologically active compounds.

The second principle on which Homeopathy is based, seems to be anomalous in the practice of medicine: the use, for therapeutic treatment purposes, of potentised and diluted substances – so diluted that often there is no trace of them any more in the final product.
On this subject, it would seem opportune to look at the question of homeopathic dilution/potentisation (“potencies”) which covers a wide range of concentrations in molecular terms. The widespread opinion that homeopathic remedies are always simply “plain water”, because they contain no molecules of the original substance, is not completely correct. In reality, some of the homeopathic medicines contain molecular quantities of the active components, even if in low to extremely low concentrations. The techniques for preparing the different types of remedies are codified in detail by the different Pharmacopeias, the most important of which are the French and German ones.
To summarize: the raw materials are prepared by extracting the active components, which is done after dissolving in hydro-alcoholic mixtures or, if the substance is insoluble, after a process of pulverization and crushing in lactose followed by dissolving in water and alcohol. The starting solutions for all dilutions of homeopathic remedies are known as Mother Tinctures and contain the maximum concentrationof the active ingredients. They cannot be considered homeopathic medicines. The later dilutions, which constitute the true homeopathic remedies, are always submitted to succussion (vigorous agitation or potentisation). According to some researcher, it is the succussion itself which causes the physical phenomena which give the homeopathic solution its particular properties. These researchers base their hypothesis on laboratory experiments conducted on water
using tried and trusted technical methods.
Homeopathic dilutions can be prepared in different strengths: Decimal scales (X) when one part of the concentrated tincture is diluted with 9 parts of solvent; hundredths scales (C) when one part of the concentrated solution is diluted with 99 parts of solvent.
There are also other dilution scales whose preparation is particularly complex.

Homeopathic potencies can be identified according to the following dilution bands:
• Low potencies: prepared using the decimal scale between 2X and 8X or, on the hundredths scale, between 1C and 4C.
• Medium potencies (medium dilutions): prepared on the decimal scale between 9X and 23X or, on the hundredths scale between 5C and 11C. They are highly diluted preparations, but in theory, contain at least some molecules.
• High potencies (high or very high dilutions): prepared on the decimal scale at over 24X or over 12C on the hundredths scale. They are preparations in which the dilution exceeds the Avogadro number and they do not contain any molecules of the original preparation.

The use of such medicines, which may not even contain one molecule of the original substance, forces the modern doctor to look at his ideas on pharmacology and to confront a conceptual challenge: to identify a possible mechanism of action in a homeopathic medicine, taking into account the clinical results and treatment successes documented in a growing number of protocol studies.
We should be open to alternative hypotheses which also touch on physical phenomena, since the effect of a homeopathic product cannot reasonably be correlated with mechanisms of a purely chemical type.
In recent years, well-known researchers and experts in the field of the exact sciences have come out in support of the idea that homeopathic
medicine may be effective, providing valuable conceptual tools for the clinician. It has been possible to establish correlations with the new discoveries about chemical-physical properties of water, the applications of functional type electrodynamic diagnostics (EAV) and finally the use of substances, for treatment purposes, obtained according to the principle of similarity and strongly diluted. All these correlations validate the hypothesis of a possible biological effect of homeopathic preparations.

“In the healthy condition of man, the spiritual vital force... retains all the parts of the organism in admirable, harmonious, vital operation, as regards both sensation and functions so that our indwelling, reason-gifted mind can freely employ this living healthy instrument for the higher purposes of our existence.”

C.F. Samuel Hahnemann

Training and Personal Experience

As a student of Prof. Antonio Santini, I was trained not only in homeopathic pharmacology but also in the basics of Constitutional Homeopathic Medicine. While Homeopathy, with its energetic and individual pharmacology enables a functional recovery and maintenance of optimal equilibrium for the body, Constitutional Physiopathology offers, in addition, the possibility to study the gradual balanced human passage from a state of health to one of disease. It furthermore aids the clinical doctor in recognizing hereditary and constitutional predispositions to diseases even before they develop, thus allowing intervention on a biological basis with preventative medicine.
Following training and a diploma in Homeopathy and Science of Human Constitution, I collaborated with ISMO (Institute of Homeopathic Studies – Istituto di Studi di Medicina Omeopatica) first for clinical work and research (1986) and then for teaching (academic year 1990/91 and succeeding years).
I took several advanced courses in classical Unicist Homeopathy.
I am registered since 1999 in the Homeopaths of Rome Registry and I am a certified Tutor of Homeopathic Medicine.
I have presented numerous seminars on “Constitutional Homeopathic Medicine” in various Italian regions and from 1998 to 2015 taught undergraduate courses in the basics and foundation of Homeopathy in the Scuola Triennale di Omeopatia e Omotossicologia (AIOT).
I directed, along with Dr. A. Pagni, the Accademia Interscolastica di Omeopatia for several years.

I was nominated to a post of External Faculty Member in Natural Pharmaceutical Methods in the Department of Pharmacology at the Università di Cosenza, I have been a speaker at conventions and conferences and I have authored articles and co-authored books on Homeopathy.
I have participated in radio and television broadcasts and have been interviewed by prominent national and international magazines on homeopathic subjects. (Go to my C.V.)

From February 2008 to December 2015, I collaborated, as Coordinator of Studies Protocols and researcher, with the PROGETTO CLINICAL, a clinical research project in Homeopathy and Regulatory Physiological Medicine conducted on a National level. (Go to Clinical page)

My view of Homeopathy is currently an “integrated” one, in which scientific research offers tools to medical practice and vice versa. I work on a constitutional basis, reinforcing biological defenses; in some cases I use single remedies as an energetic catalyst for the patient. I always utilize homeopathic medicine up to the point in which the particular severity of a pathology forces me to consider the possibility of conventional intervention. I believe that safeguarding human health and life has priority over “philosophic” consistency. Homeopathy is a type of medicine that possesses enormous possibilities but it also has well defined limits. Even though homeopathy was born from a clear vision of existence, I do not consider it a religious creed or philosophic system of affiliation. My daily experience with homeopathy has allowed me to grow as a doctor and as a person: as a doctor, because the observation method assists in perceiving less obvious symptoms, facilitates the correlation of information and lastly allows a unitary view of the individual; as a person, because during the course of a homeopathic examination, a deep and intimate relationship is established with the patient.