Medicine > Homeopathy
Homeopathy was born in 1796, from experimental studies carried
out by the german Dr. C. F. Samuel Hahnemann.
Speaking of Homeopathy today, that is, the branch of medicine
which treats “like with like” (in ancient Greek,
the word omeòs means “like”), there seems
to be a kind of resonance with commonly used treatment methods.
We immediately think about anti-viral or anti-allergy vaccines.
However, the use of vaccines is based on the “principle
of identity”, in other words the cure is prepared using
substances or materials which are the same as those which can
cause the illness (aequalia aequalibus), thus establishing a
direct relationship between the pathogenic agent and the therapeutic
In Homeopathy, this principle of identity gives way to the principle
called the “criterion of similarity”. The treatment
of like with like is an ancient principle existing in the history
of medicine right from its beginnings. However, in homeopathic
medicine, the principle of similarity becomes the theoretical
nucleus of the entire treatment concept. Initially derived from
empirical evidence, the principle of similarity is now based
on some experimental evidence and, although some of its aspects
have still to be investigated, the principle of similarity
seems to be a possible key to reading the complexity of biological
. Let’s start with the traditional concept,
expressed in Hahnemann’s own words (Organon of Medicine)
so that we can understand better the idea of homeopathic similarity:
“One imitates nature which sometimes heals one chronic
disturbance by adding another and uses for the illness that
remedy which is able to provoke another artificial illness as
similar as possible to the one which it wants to cureand which
it is able to cure: similia similibus” (Hahnemann, 1842).
“Choosing a remedy for a specific natural illness
which is able to produce a very similar artificial illness,
we can cure the more obstinate illness” (ibid.). “Every
single case of illness is much more surely, radically, rapidly
and definitively conquered and cured when the medicine (which
treats it) can produce in a healthy organism in the most complete
and similar way the totality of its symptoms, which at the same
time are stronger than the illness” (ibid.).
To sum up, we can condense the classic formula of homeopathic
similarity into three points:
• Every biologically
active substance, whether it is a medicine or a toxin, a mineral
or a plant extract, or even a bacterial product, produces some
specific characteristic symptoms in the body of a person who
• Every sick person presents symptoms which
are peculiar to the particular changes which have affected them
(and it is on these symptoms that we base the diagnosis of a
pathology), but also and more importantly, symptoms which are
linked to the person’s own individual reactivity and biological
constitution and which are therefore personal symptoms;
• The recovery of a sick person may be induced or encouraged
by administering a specific substance in the correct dilution
(or with a highmolecular dispersion of the active component).
This substance can produce in a healthy person the same symptoms
present in the pathology.
From an analysis of these three points, it is clear that the
homeopathic Principle of Similarity is founded on a similarity
of symptoms which are mainly subjectives and therefore not acceptable
to conventional medicine, which generally tries to take account
of objective data.
In short, the choice of a medicine made on the basis of individual
symptoms (even if they are specific) would seem to be contradictory
the guidelines dictated by modern scientific medicine, which
looks for biochemical and molecular confirmation. In reality
is more apparent than real. We can in fact, regard every symptom
as the clinical expression of a series of underlying physiopathological
and biochemical changes. Craving, or the overwhelming yearning
for sweet foods, especially in the evening, may depend on a
reduction in serotonin levels. The desire for liquid, or thirst,
can be interpreted as a hypothalamic-pituitary response to liquid
depletion (profuse sweating, diarrhea, blood loss etc.). A high
temperature is well known to be a response by the heat regulation
centers in the hypothalamus to the release, activated by inflammation,
of cytokines by specific cells.
So, if we analyze the problem from this perspective, homeopathic
medical practice differs from the conventional mainly in the
integration of all the information gathered from its own diagnostic
procedures: the use of symptoms and signs on the basis of the
procedure codified by Hahnemann could even offer different (but
not conflicting) levels of comprehension of the pharmacological
properties of biologically active compounds.
The second principle on which Homeopathy is based, seems to
be anomalous in the practice of medicine: the use, for therapeutic
treatment purposes, of potentised and diluted substances –
so diluted that often there is no trace of them any more in
the final product.
On this subject, it would seem opportune to look at the question
of homeopathic dilution/potentisation (“potencies”)
which covers a wide range of concentrations in molecular terms.
The widespread opinion that homeopathic remedies are always
simply “plain water”, because they contain no
molecules of the original substance, is not completely correct.
In reality, some of the homeopathic medicines contain molecular
quantities of the active components, even if in low to extremely
low concentrations. The techniques for preparing the different
types of remedies are codified in detail by the different
Pharmacopeias, the most important of which are the French
and German ones.
To summarize: the raw materials are prepared by extracting
the active components, which is done after dissolving in hydro-alcoholic
mixtures or, if the substance is insoluble, after a process
of pulverization and crushing in lactose followed by dissolving
in water and alcohol. The starting solutions for all dilutions
of homeopathic remedies are known as Mother Tinctures and
contain the maximum concentrationof the active ingredients.
They cannot be considered homeopathic medicines. The later
dilutions, which constitute the true homeopathic remedies,
are always submitted to succussion (vigorous agitation or
potentisation). According to some researcher, it is the succussion
itself which causes the physical phenomena which give the
homeopathic solution its particular properties. These researchers
base their hypothesis on laboratory experiments conducted
using tried and trusted technical methods.
Homeopathic dilutions can be prepared in different strengths:
Decimal scales (X) when one part of the concentrated tincture
is diluted with 9 parts of solvent; hundredths scales (C)
when one part of the concentrated solution is diluted with
99 parts of solvent.
There are also other dilution scales whose preparation is
Homeopathic potencies can be identified according to the following
• Low potencies: prepared using the decimal scale between
2X and 8X or, on the hundredths scale, between 1C and 4C.
• Medium potencies (medium dilutions): prepared on the
decimal scale between 9X and 23X or, on the hundredths scale
between 5C and 11C. They are highly diluted preparations,
but in theory, contain at least some molecules.
• High potencies (high or very high dilutions): prepared
on the decimal scale at over 24X or over 12C on the hundredths
scale. They are preparations in which the dilution exceeds
the Avogadro number and they do not contain any molecules
of the original preparation.
The use of such medicines, which may not even contain one
molecule of the original substance, forces the modern doctor
to look at his ideas on pharmacology and to confront a conceptual
challenge: to identify a possible mechanism of action in a
homeopathic medicine, taking into account the clinical results
and treatment successes documented in a growing number of
We should be open to alternative hypotheses which also touch
on physical phenomena, since the effect of a homeopathic product
cannot reasonably be correlated with mechanisms of a purely
In recent years, well-known researchers and experts in the
field of the exact sciences have come out in support of the
idea that homeopathic
medicine may be effective, providing valuable conceptual tools
for the clinician. It has been possible to establish correlations
with the new discoveries about chemical-physical properties
of water, the applications of functional type electrodynamic
diagnostics (EAV) and finally the use of substances, for treatment
purposes, obtained according to the principle of similarity
and strongly diluted. All these correlations validate the
hypothesis of a possible biological effect of homeopathic
“In the healthy condition of man, the spiritual vital
force... retains all the parts of the organism in admirable,
harmonious, vital operation, as regards both sensation and functions
so that our indwelling, reason-gifted mind can freely employ
this living healthy instrument for the higher purposes of our
C.F. Samuel Hahnemann
Training and Personal Experience
As a student of Prof. Antonio Santini, I was trained
not only in homeopathic pharmacology but also in the basics
of Constitutional Homeopathic Medicine. While Homeopathy, with
its energetic and individual pharmacology enables a functional
recovery and maintenance of optimal equilibrium for the body,
Constitutional Physiopathology offers, in addition, the possibility
to study the gradual balanced human passage from a state of
health to one of disease. It furthermore aids the clinical doctor
in recognizing hereditary and constitutional predispositions
to diseases even before they develop, thus allowing intervention
on a biological basis with preventative medicine.
Following training and a diploma in Homeopathy and Science of
Human Constitution, I collaborated with ISMO (Institute of Homeopathic
Studies – Istituto di Studi di Medicina Omeopatica)
first for clinical work and research (1986) and then for teaching
(academic year 1990/91 and succeeding years).
I took several advanced courses in classical Unicist Homeopathy.
I am registered since 1999 in the Homeopaths of Rome Registry
and I am a certified Tutor of Homeopathic Medicine.
I have presented numerous seminars on “Constitutional
Homeopathic Medicine” in various Italian regions and from
1998 to 2015 taught undergraduate courses in the basics and foundation of Homeopathy in the
Scuola Triennale di Omeopatia e Omotossicologia (AIOT).
I directed, along with Dr. A. Pagni, the Accademia Interscolastica
di Omeopatia for several years.
I was nominated to a post of External Faculty Member in Natural Pharmaceutical Methods in the Department of Pharmacology at the Università di Cosenza, I have been a speaker at conventions and conferences and I have authored articles and co-authored books on Homeopathy.
I have participated in radio and television broadcasts and have been interviewed by prominent national and international magazines on homeopathic subjects. (Go
to my C.V.)
From February 2008 to December 2015, I collaborated, as Coordinator of Studies Protocols and researcher, with the PROGETTO CLINICAL, a clinical research project in Homeopathy and Regulatory Physiological Medicine conducted on a National level. (Go
to Clinical page)
My view of Homeopathy is currently an “integrated”
one, in which scientific research offers tools to medical practice
and vice versa. I work on a constitutional basis, reinforcing
biological defenses; in some cases I use single remedies as
an energetic catalyst for the patient. I always utilize homeopathic
medicine up to the point in which the particular severity of
a pathology forces me to consider the possibility of conventional
intervention. I believe that safeguarding human health and life
has priority over “philosophic” consistency. Homeopathy
is a type of medicine that possesses enormous possibilities
but it also has well defined limits. Even though homeopathy
was born from a clear vision of existence, I do not consider
it a religious creed or philosophic system of affiliation. My
daily experience with homeopathy has allowed me to grow as a
doctor and as a person: as a doctor, because the observation
method assists in perceiving less obvious symptoms, facilitates
the correlation of information and lastly allows a unitary view
of the individual; as a person, because during the course of
a homeopathic examination, a deep and intimate relationship
is established with the patient.